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Php autoload all files in directory что это

What is autoloading

Autoloading is the process of automatically loading PHP classes without explicitly loading them with the require(), require_once(), include(), or include_once() functions.

It’s necessary to name your class files exactly the same as your classes. The class Views would be placed in Views.php, a class called Users would be stored in Users.php and so on.

What is autoloader

An autoloader is a function that takes a class name as an argument and then includes the file that contains the corresponding class, for example:

function autoloader ( $class ) {
 $path = $DOCUMENT_ROOT . '/classes/';
 require $path . $class .'.php'; 
}

__autoload() function (deprecated)

__autoload(), a magic function, is automatically invoked by the PHP when we instantiate a class that has not already been loaded. For example:

function __autoload($class) {
 $path = $DOCUMENT_ROOT . '/classes/';
 require_once  $path . $class .'.php';
}
$myCls = new myClass();

As of PHP 7.2.0 the __autoload()function has been deprecated. Now it is recommended to use the spl_autoload_register for that purpose instead.

spl_autoload_register()

PHP 5.1.2 introduced the more flexible spl_autoload_register() function in its SPL library which allows you to register multiple autoloader functions.

What is SPL library?

The Standard PHP Library (SPL) is a built-in library to solve common problems. It provides:

  • Datastructures, such as: linked lists, stack, queue, heap, fixed array, object storage etc.
  • Iterators, such as: array iterator, directory iterator, fs iterator, regex iterator etc.
  • Interfaces, such as: countable, OuterIterator etc.
  • Exceptions
  • Spl functions, such as: spl_autoload_extensions, spl_autoload_functions, spl_autoload_register, spl_autoload_unregister, spl_autoload etc.
  • File handling functions

For more information visit: http://php.net/manual/en/intro.spl.php

Registering multiple autoloader functions

The spl_autoload_register() allows to create an autoload chain, a series of functions that can be called to try and load a class or interface:

Why to use an autoloader

How often have you seen code like this at the top of your PHP files?

All too often, right? The require(), require_once(), include(), and include_once() functions load an external PHP file into the current script, and they work wonderfully if you have only a few PHP scripts.

However, what if you need to include a hundred PHP scripts? The require() and include() functions do not scale well, and this is why PHP autoloaders are important. An autoloader is a strategy for finding a PHP class, interface, or trait and loading it into the PHP interpreter on-demand at run-time, without explicitly including files.

Установка Composer в OSX / Linux

curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php

и

mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

Подробнее об установке

Использование Composer

Инициализируйте Composer, набрав

composer init

in the root of the project. Follow the instructions, you’ll end up with a composer.json file. This is the file that contains all the project dependencies.

Now type

composer install

This command will download all the dependencies in the vendor folder and create a composer.lock file.

The vendor folder contains the packages folders, plus an autoload.php file and the composer folder, which are internal Composer files.

To include the dependencies include vendor/autoload.php in your PHP main file:

require 'vendor/autoload.php'

and all will just work.

Adding dependencies

To add more dependencies to the project type

composer require packagename:1.0

Example:

composer require filp/whoops:2.0

Updating dependencies

Run

composer update

Composer will search for updates for the packages you specified, taking into consideration any versions limit you added, and will update the composer.lock file.

Package versions

Most used version formats:

  • “1.0”: will install that precise version
  • “~1.0”: will install any update to 1.0, 1.0.1, 1.0.20 but will not install version 1.1 and later versions.

composer.lock

Whenever you update the installed dependencies running composer install or composer update, the composer.lock file will be updated to reflect it. So if you add this file to the repository everyone that downloads the project and runs composer install will get the exact same versions you installed, even if a newer one satisfying the version limits in composer.json is available.

They need to run composer update to get the latest releases available.

Package updates notifications

Add your project’s composer.json and composer.lock to VersionEye to be notified via email when your dependencies are updated, so you can update them in your project.

Security issues in your dependencies

Add your composer.lock to Security Advisories Checker

A note on PEAR

PEAR was the older widely used package manager. The major disadvantage over Composer is that dependencies are installed globally, so there is no version fine-tuning allowed for projects. Once you update a PEAR package, every project on the system will use the new version, and depending on your scenario, this might be a problem.

Adding dependencies

To add more dependencies to the project type

composer require packagename:1.0

Example:

composer require filp/whoops:2.0

Updating dependencies

Run

composer update

Composer will search for updates for the packages you specified, taking into consideration any versions limit you added, and will update the composer.lock file.

Package versions

Most used version formats:

  • “1.0”: will install that precise version
  • “~1.0”: will install any update to 1.0, 1.0.1, 1.0.20 but will not install version 1.1 and later versions.

composer.lock

Whenever you update the installed dependencies running composer install or composer update, the composer.lock file will be updated to reflect it. So if you add this file to the repository everyone that downloads the project and runs composer install will get the exact same versions you installed, even if a newer one satisfying the version limits in composer.json is available.

They need to run composer update to get the latest releases available.

Package updates notifications

Add your project’s composer.json and composer.lock to VersionEye to be notified via email when your dependencies are updated, so you can update them in your project.

Security issues in your dependencies

Add your composer.lock to Security Advisories Checker

A note on PEAR

PEAR was the older widely used package manager. The major disadvantage over Composer is that dependencies are installed globally, so there is no version fine-tuning allowed for projects. Once you update a PEAR package, every project on the system will use the new version, and depending on your scenario, this might be a problem.

Updating dependencies

Run

composer update

Composer will search for updates for the packages you specified, taking into consideration any versions limit you added, and will update the composer.lock file.

Package versions

Most used version formats:

  • “1.0”: will install that precise version
  • “~1.0”: will install any update to 1.0, 1.0.1, 1.0.20 but will not install version 1.1 and later versions.

composer.lock

Whenever you update the installed dependencies running composer install or composer update, the composer.lock file will be updated to reflect it. So if you add this file to the repository everyone that downloads the project and runs composer install will get the exact same versions you installed, even if a newer one satisfying the version limits in composer.json is available.

They need to run composer update to get the latest releases available.

Package updates notifications

Add your project’s composer.json and composer.lock to VersionEye to be notified via email when your dependencies are updated, so you can update them in your project.

Security issues in your dependencies

Add your composer.lock to Security Advisories Checker

A note on PEAR

PEAR was the older widely used package manager. The major disadvantage over Composer is that dependencies are installed globally, so there is no version fine-tuning allowed for projects. Once you update a PEAR package, every project on the system will use the new version, and depending on your scenario, this might be a problem.

Package versions

Most used version formats:

  • “1.0”: will install that precise version
  • “~1.0”: will install any update to 1.0, 1.0.1, 1.0.20 but will not install version 1.1 and later versions.

composer.lock

Whenever you update the installed dependencies running composer install or composer update, the composer.lock file will be updated to reflect it. So if you add this file to the repository everyone that downloads the project and runs composer install will get the exact same versions you installed, even if a newer one satisfying the version limits in composer.json is available.

They need to run composer update to get the latest releases available.

Package updates notifications

Add your project’s composer.json and composer.lock to VersionEye to be notified via email when your dependencies are updated, so you can update them in your project.

Security issues in your dependencies

Add your composer.lock to Security Advisories Checker