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# Operators and functions in php

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

This is almost the same as the basic arithmetic operators you learned in your school.

## PHP Assignments Operators

The basic assignment operator in PHP is =. It is actually not the "equal" mark in PHP. It works as assignment operator, which assigns a value to a variable.

### PHP Basic Assignment Operator Example

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Run Example ››

In this example,

• 5 is assigned to \$a.
• 7 is assigned to \$b.
• Then, the value of \$b (7) is assigned to \$a.

There are some other assignment operators to learn.

Operator Example Long Form Description
= \$a = \$b \$a = \$b \$a gets set to the value of \$b Run Example ››
+= \$a += \$b \$a = \$a + \$b \$a gets set to \$a + \$b (Addition) Run Example ››
-= \$a -= \$b \$a = \$a - \$b \$a gets set to \$a - \$b (Subtraction) Run Example ››
*= \$a *= \$b \$a = \$a * \$b \$a gets set to \$a * \$b (Multiplication) Run Example ››
/= \$a /= \$b \$a = \$a / \$b \$a gets set to \$a / \$b (Division) Run Example ››
%= \$a %= \$b \$a = \$a % \$b \$a gets set to \$a % \$b (Modulus) Run Example ››
**= \$a **= \$b \$a = \$a ** \$b \$a gets set to \$a ** \$b (Exponentiation) Run Example ››

## PHP Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators allow you to compare two values.

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal \$a == \$b True if values of \$a and \$b are equal Run Example ››
=== Identical \$a === \$b True if both values and data types of \$a and \$b are equal Run Example ››
!= Not equal \$a != \$b True if \$a is not equal to \$b Run Example ››
Not equal \$a \$b True if \$a is not equal to \$b Run Example ››
!== Not identical \$a !== \$b True if \$a is not equal to \$b or they are not in the same data type Run Example ››
> Greater than \$a > \$b True if \$a is greater than \$b Run Example ››
Less than \$a True if \$a is less than \$b Run Example ››
>= Greater than or equal to \$a >= \$b True if \$a is greater than or equal to \$b Run Example ››
Less than or equal to \$a True if \$a is less than or equal to \$b Run Example ››

!== and have no difference. Both work in the same way.

## PHP Logical Operators

A logical operator is a kind used in logic. In PHP, all logical operators return a boolean value.

Note: We will discuss more about the if blocks we have used in this examples in the next lesson.

## PHP Incrementing/Decrementing Operators

PHP's incrementing and decrementing operators are used to increment and decrement values respectively.

Note:

• Only strings and numbers (integers and floats) are affected by these operators.
• Arrays and objects are not affected.
• Decrementing null has no effect, but incrementing results in 1.
Example Name Result
++\$a Pre-increment Increments \$a by one, then returns \$a Run Example ››
\$a++ Post-increment Returns \$a, then increments \$a by one. Run Example ››
--\$a Pre-decrement Decrements \$a by one, then returns \$a Run Example ››
\$a-- Post-decrement Returns \$a, then decrements \$a by one. Run Example ››

## PHP String Operators

There are two special string operators what help us to operate strings.

Operator Name Example Result
. Concatenation \$a . \$b Returns the concatenation of its right and left arguments Run Example ››
.= Concatenation Assignment \$a .= \$b \$a gets set to \$a . \$b Run Example ››

## PHP Array Operators

PHP array operators are used to perform operations on arrays.

Operator Name Example Result
+ Union \$a + \$b Returns the union of \$a and \$b arrays. Run Example ››
+= Union Assignment \$a += \$b \$a gets set to \$a + \$b Run Example ››
== Equal \$a == \$b True if \$a and \$b has equal key/value pairs Run Example ››
=== Identical \$a === \$b True if \$a and \$b has equal key/value pairs in the same order and of same data type. Run Example ››
!= Not equal \$a != \$b True if \$a and \$b are not equal. Run Example ››
Not equal \$a \$b True if \$a and \$b are not equal. Run Example ››
!== Not identical \$a !== \$b True if \$a and \$b has different orders, different key/value pairs or values of different data types. Run Example ››